Summary Response Outline
- Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb, main idea
In the second act of the tragedy Othello, Shakespeare captures the attention of the audience with Iago’s two-faced treachery.
- Supporting ideas and explanations to prove main ideas
In Iago’s soliloquies, asides and actions, the viewer gains insight to Iago’s manipulative scheme to set up a scenario where Cassio is having an affair with Desdemona, and Iago seems like a saint to Othello for offering information of their affair. When Iago is around different friends, he exchanges personalities. He uses these personalities to bring about the downfall of Othello and Cassio.
- Concluding sentence: restate main idea
Iago deliberately manipulates people for his personal gain with a variety of personalities.
Response:*compare Iago to Montresor*
- Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb,correctly portrays/ incorrectly portrays___________ because ___________ .
The second act of the tragedy Othello, accurately depicts the power that pride and jealousy have over Iago’s actions.
- Claim 1:
Iago is motivated by his jealousy of Cassio’s position as Lieutenant to defame Cassio.
Othello and Desdemona have gone to bed and Iago reveals in a soliloquy that he plans to get Cassio drunk. Iago is hoping that when Cassio is intoxicated, he will make rash decisions that will force Othello to relieve Cassio of his position. Iago is jealous of Cassio’s position so once Cassio is drunk he orders Roderigo to fight Cassio.
- Evidence: Lead-in “ quotation” (Shakespeare 1.2.13-17).
Iago attempts to persuade Cassio and says, “Come, lieutenant, I have a stoup of wine; and here without are a brace of Cyprus gallants that would fain have measure to the health of black Othello.” (Shakespeare 2.3.30-33)
- Explanation of quotation to prove claim: explain quote, connect to claim
Iago ruins Cassio’s reputation to remove Cassio from his position. If Cassio was relieved of his duty, then Iago would have filled the vacant position that he deserved. Iago allows jealousy to rule his actions and will stop at nothing to remove Cassio from his post.
- Counterclaim 1:
However, Iago tempts Cassio with wine to defame him so that he is forced to exploit his relationship with Desdemona to get his position back so it seems like they are having an affair.
Iago gets Cassio drunk and hopes that he will make rash decisions that will force Othello to relieve Cassio of his position. Iago hopes that after Cassio is relieved, he will take his advice and seek Desdemona’s assistance to regain his former stature. Cassio does all of this to hurt Othello.
- Evidence: Lead-in “ quotation” ( )
Iago thinks to himself, “If I can fasten but one cup upon him, With that which he had drunk tonight already, He’llo be as full of quarrel and and offense As my young mistress; dog. Now my sick fool Roderigo.” (Shakespeare 2.3.49-53)
- Explanation of quotation to prove counterclaim: explain quote, connect to claim
Iago ruins Cassio’s reputation to set the stage for hurting Othello. Iago wants revenge on Othello for awarding Cassio the title of Lieutenant. He craves revenge because his pride was wounded when Othello chose Cassio over him.
- What are the strengths/ flaws of this argument? (use rebuttal progression language)
1st step: Describe a "naive response" or an opposing interpretation of your position. A "naive view" is a view that you personally disagree with or a view that misses something important. But don't use the word "naive." Say something like…
I used to think that...
A common view is that...
At first glance...
Many think that....
X argues that...
Critics of ____ propose...
Many think Iago is merely motivated by his jealousy of Cassio’s position as Lieutenant to defame Cassio.
2nd step: Briefly explain the logic or reasoning of this "naive view." Answer the question, "Why would someone think this way? Why would they find their answer or solution logical or reasonable?" Why did I think this way? Say something like...
We cannot deny that...
This way of making sense of the position makes a degree of sense [why?]
This position seems reasonable [why?]
I can understand why someone might interpret X in this way [explain how so]
These conclusions seem compelling [why?]
We cannot deny that Iago was jealous of Cassio because Cassio had what Iago wanted.
3rd step: Provide a transition that indicates that you are going to contrast this "naive view." Say something like...
But it's more complicated than that...
This interpretation is helpful, but it misses an important point...
This interpretation raises a fundamental question...
While this view seems plausible/reasonable at first glance, we should look closer...
However, it’s more complicated than that because although Iago was jealous of Cassio, his real focus was revenge on Othello. When Othello made Cassio Lieutenant instead of Iago it wounded Iago’s pride because he thought he was better suited than Cassio. Iago’s actions indicate that Iago hates Othello because he was aiming to hurt Othello.
- Concluding sentence: restate main idea
In the second act of Othello, Iago is a perfect example of how people allow pride and jealousy to rule over their actions.