Thursday, February 4, 2016

Benjamin Franklin S/R

Drake Hampton
English 9 Honors
Mrs. Smith
2/4/16
Benjamin Franklin S/R

In 1759, Benjamin Franklin expressed his view on personal liberty and security by stating anyone who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety. One can interpret the “essential liberty” Benjamin Franklin talks about as privacy. Benjamin Franklin believed that anyone who would sacrifice their privacy or liberty for a temporary state of security, like the supporters of the English, did not deserve either privacy or security.
    Benjamin Franklin correctly identifies the relationship between privacy and security because privacy is strongly tied to individual freedom, one of the most highly valued principles held by humans for all time. In North America, during the French and Indian War in the 1750’s, the freedom and privacy of the English colonists was being challenged by the British crown. The lack of equality in the form of taxation without representation impelled the oppressed colonists to resist and eventually fight for an independent state. The colonists were discontent with the lack of equality and were faced with a choice to acquiesce their privacy and conform to the wishes of the crown or resist the crown. The conformists gave up liberties to support the crown and the non-conformists fought the British and refused to cooperate. Since all people value freedom and want to maintain the ability to self govern, Benjamin Franklin’s argument is still valid today. People are no longer sovereign over their own body and mind when they acquiesce their thoughts, their money, their individual freedoms, or give undue power to any state or governing body. John Stuart Mill stated in On Liberty “that the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others” (John Stuart Mill, On Liberty). Over the last 15 years, the debate between security and individual liberty has been at the forefront because of 9/11 and other terrorist attacks around the world. Civil libertarians argue that the government’s added security not only infringes on individuals freedom, but more importantly violates personal privacy. Many other people argue that it is a small sacrifice to make in order to gain more safety and security. In reality, one is not required to give up personal liberty to gain security; these two are not inextricably linked. It is possible to have security and yet not give up any individual liberties. It is the people that ultimately determine the degree to which an authoritarian state may exert any unchecked power. Ideally, the power that a state has should be enough to keep individuals from harming others and nothing more. Moreover, Benjamin Franklin’s argument is easily challenged because all people value security. Since the state has the power to protect the people, some people believe that each person should be willing to give up a small degree of individual liberty in order to live in a safer and more secure society. The condition by which people give up some liberty to gain security or self-preservation is identified by Thomas Hobbes as the “Social Contract”. Hobbes defines this contract as “the mutual transferring of right.”  In Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes states, “For by art is created that great LEVIATHAN called a COMMONWEALTH, or STATE (in Latin, CIVITAS), which is but an artificial man, though of greater stature and strength than the natural, for whose protection and defence it was intended; and in which the sovereignty is an artificial soul, as giving life and motion to the whole body;” (Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan). Thomas Hobbes, in Leviathan, rigorously argues that civil peace and social unity are best achieved by the establishment of a commonwealth through people giving up certain natural rights and transferring them to the state. The head of the artificial man, or Leviathan, is the sovereign. The state is comprised of contracts made by the people that give power to representatives of the state; the primary reason of which is to protect people from those that wish to abuse power and harm other individuals. One purpose of the Leviathan is to protect the people from the abuses of one another. In other words, if all people give up minute amounts of liberty, the head of the Leviathan can rule over, protect, and provide security to the people.The catch about the Leviathan system is that essential liberties must be forfeited to gain security. Many believe that it is necessary to give up personal liberty to gain security. Some people hang on to this belief because they so greatly value security and also falsely believe that they can increase their security if they compromise their individual liberty. The strength of this argument is that it appeals to the natural instinct of self protection. However, the argument assumes that one must give up personal liberty in order to increase security. To reject the claim that a trade off must happen between liberty and security, it is sufficient to show that security can be maintained without compromising individual liberty. Suppose that it is not possible to have security without giving up liberty. Then it must be true that complete individual liberty only exists when there is no security and complete security only exists when there is no individual liberty. However, since all people have freedom of thought and expression, all people have some individual liberty in even the most secure of situations.  Therefore it is possible to have security without compromising liberty so Benjamin Franklin’s claim that a person that gives up liberty to gain security presumes that personal liberty should be valued above all. The colonists ultimately agreed with Franklin and opposed the crown in order to maintain individual liberties and personal security. The fact that the colonists were able to maintain their security without giving up personal liberty or privacy proves that it is not necessary to give up personal liberty to gain security.


Works Cited
Mill, John Stuart, and David Spitz. On Liberty. New York: Norton, 1975. Print.

Hobbes, Thomas, and Richard Tuck. Leviathan. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1991. Print.

Sunday, October 25, 2015

Othello Act 5 S/R Redo

Drake Hampton
English 9 Honors Smith

Summary:(no opinion, no personal words, state in your own words)
  • Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb, main idea
In Act 5 of Othello, Shakespeare illustrates how willing people are to believe even the most dubious of suggestions.
  • Supporting ideas to prove main ideas
In the beginning of Othello, Othello and Desdemona have a very healthy trusting relationship. After Iago implants his rancorous ideas into Othello, all hell breaks loose and Othello begins to deeply resent Desdemona and eventually murders her.
  • Explanation of ideas
Othello was ripe for the putrefaction of Desdemona’s image. At an early age, Othello lost his innocence because of hardship and misery that he had endured. This is perhaps one of the reasons why Othello didn’t believe that people were naturally good. Othello was ready to believe anything he was told with some shallow proof.

In the book, Motivating Learning in Young Children, Martha Carlton says, “Children who receive the right sort of support and encouragement during these years (childhood) will be creative, adventurous learners throughout their lives. Children who do not receive this sort of support and interaction are likely to have a much different attitude about learning later in life” (Carlton 1). In other words, what people learn and experience in the early years of their life greatly impacts their world view.

  • Concluding sentence: title, author, restate main idea
People are gullible and Shakespeare makes this point very clear in Othello as he reveals how Iago, an underhanded swine with a personal vendetta against Othello and Cassio, manipulates his friends and betrays their trust by pitting them against each other.


Response: (no personal words)
Topic sentence: title, author, agree/disagree (correctly portrays/ incorrectly portrays), main idea because ___________.
In Act 5 of Othello, Shakespeare accurately captures human nature contrasting Iago’s evil and Desdemona’s innocence and purity.
  • Claim 1:
Humans are by nature, bad.
    • Set-up situation of quote: What is going on in the story?
Iago’s scheme has almost succeeded but is in shambles. Desdemona is dead, Emelia knows what he did, Roderigo is dead, Cassio is badly wounded, and Iago is under the eye of suspicion.
    • Lead in, “quote” (Citation).
In one of Iago’s soliloquies earlier in the book, he says, “... I hate the Moor; And it is thought abroad that 'twixt my sheets 'Has done my office. I know not if't be true; Yet I, for mere suspicion in that kind, Will do as if for surety” (Shakespeare 1.3.3.78-82). He even goes so far to use his wife like a pawn without any regard for her when he remarks, “Villainous whore!” (Shakespeare 5.2.273) and, “Filth, thou liest!” (Shakespeare 5.2.276).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove counterclaim: explain what the quote says, connect to the counterclaim
After Iago insults his wife, he stabs and kills her. Iago is incapable of seeing the good in anyone or anything. Iago has never been a good person and never will be one. Iago is not capable of love, being loved, and being around people that love him because he is evil at the roots. Iago is a materialistic, hedonistic, devil. If Iago can be this evil it is not possible for human nature to be good. Desdemona was also with sin because even when she was honest in the eyes of her father she was deceiving him by being with Othello. Even when someone is whole, like Othello, they can be easily tainted by sin. Iago shattered Othello’s innocence because he was evil.

  • Counterclaim:
Humans are by nature, good.
    • Set-up situation of quote: What is going on in the story?
Othello and Desdemona are in a state of blissful love. They never fight, argue, or assume the other one is being dishonest. They assume that humanity is good. Iago is like Satan in the Garden of Eden. The serpent in Eden offers Adam a reality where he is just as good as God and Adam chooses to believe it. Iago offers Othello an alternate reality where Desdemona is unfaithful and Othello chooses to believe it. It is the downfall of both of them. After multiple insinuations of Desdemona’s infidelity as a result of Iago’s deceit, Othello confronts Desdemona.
    • Lead in, “quote” (Citation).
Desdemona swears she is truthful and pleads with Othello, “have you mercy, too. I never did offend you in my life, never loved Cassio but with such general warranty of heaven as I might love. I never gave him token”(Shakespeare 5.2.73-76).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove claim: explain what the quote says, connect to the claim
Desdemona swears to God and Othello that she never loved Cassio or gave him token. Othello is incapable of believing Desdemona because his thoughts were filled with Iago’s darkness and he assumed the worst. Othello was very stressed and he was not in the right state of mind. Othello was easy to tempt because he trusted Iago similar to Adam trusting in the promises of the serpent in the Garden of Eden; neither had irrefutable proof that what the antagonist said was true but they chose to believe them. One could assume Othello was self-conscious of his race which allowed Iago to tempt him. While Othello was by nature good, he allowed himself to be corrupted by Iago. A newborn baby is innocent and in the perfect environment a baby would continue to remain pure and innocent. For a person to be evil, something bad has to occur to make them evil.
Proposal Paper
Rebuttal progression:

1st step: Describe a "naive response" or an opposing interpretation of your position. A "naive view" is a view that you personally disagree with or a view that misses something important. But don't use the word "naive." Say something like…
I used to think that...
A common view is that...
At first glance...
Many think that....
X argues that...
Critics of ____ propose...

Many argue that human nature is good, whole, and innocent.

2nd step: Briefly explain the logic or reasoning of this "naive view." Answer the question, "Why would someone think this way? Why would they find their answer or solution logical or reasonable?" Why did I think this way? Say something like...
We cannot deny that...
This way of making sense of the position makes a degree of sense [why?]
This position seems reasonable [why?]
I can understand why someone might interpret X in this way [explain how so]
These conclusions seem compelling [why?]

This seems very plausible when there is an example like a baby. Babies are innocent, good, perfect, and loving. There is nothing evil about infants.

3rd step: Provide a transition that indicates that you are going to contrast this "naive view." Say something like...
However...
But it's more complicated than that...
This interpretation is helpful, but it misses an important point...
This interpretation raises a fundamental question...
While this view seems plausible/reasonable at first glance, we should look closer...

However, babies grow up. Evil enters their lives. When we are babies we do not sin, but we can not yet think for ourselves. Hitler was not evil when he was a child but he attempted to eradicate an entire race. Iago was not an evil baby but he is indisputably the most evil character in Othello. As children we deceive our parents time after time until we learn our lesson. Young boys have carnal and violent desires. This is clearly demonstrated in The Lord of The Flies. In the Garden of Eden when the serpent tempted Adam and Eve, it was Adam and Eve’s choice, not the serpent’s.It is said that people aren’t afraid of the dark but what lies in it. What we see in the dark is not real, but what we imagine comes from our minds. Even our thoughts are evil. Sin is a part of human nature

  • Concluding sentence: restate title, author, position, main idea and because

In Othello, Shakespeare very accurately evaluates the good and evil in human nature with the most satanic character from all of his plays, Iago.

Monday, October 5, 2015

Act 5 S/R

Drake Hampton
English 9 Honors Smith

Summary:(no opinion, no personal words, state in your own words)
  • Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb, main idea
In Act 5 of Othello, Shakespeare illustrates how willing people are to believe even the most dubious of suggestions.
  • Supporting ideas to prove main ideas
In the beginning of Othello, Othello and Desdemona have a very healthy trusting relationship. After Iago implants his rancorous ideas into Othello, all hell breaks loose and Othello begins to deeply resent Desdemona and eventually murders her.
  • Explanation of ideas
Othello was ripe for the putrefaction of Desdemona’s image. Othello felt inferior to people like Cassio because of his race and isolated upbringing. At an early age, Othello lost his innocence because of hardship and misery that he endured as a child. This is perhaps one of the reasons why Othello didn’t believe that people were naturally good. In the book, Motivating Learning in Young Children, Martha Carlton says, “Children who receive the right sort of support and encouragement during these years (childhood) will be creative, adventurous learners throughout their lives. Children who do not receive this sort of support and interaction are likely to have a much different attitude about learning later in life” (Carlton 1). In other words, what people learn and experience in the early years of their life greatly impacts their world view.

  • Concluding sentence: title, author, restate main idea
People are gullible and Shakespeare makes this point very clear in Othello as he reveals how Iago, an underhanded swine with a personal vendetta against Othello and Cassio, manipulates his friends and betrays their trust by pitting them against each other.


Response: (no personal words)
Topic sentence: title, author, agree/disagree (correctly portrays/ incorrectly portrays), main idea because ___________.
In Othello, Shakespeare accurately captures human nature with Iago’s treachery and dishonesty, Desdemona’s innocence and love, and Othello’s anxiety and rage.
  • Claim 1:
Humans are by nature, good.
    • Set-up situation of quote: What is going on in the story?
Othello and Desdemona are in a state of blissful love. They never fight, argue, or assume the other one is being dishonest. They assume that humanity is good. Iago is like Satan in the Garden of Eden. The serpent in Eden offers Adam a reality where he is just as good as God and Adam chooses to believe it. Iago offers Othello an alternate reality where Desdemona is unfaithful and Othello chooses to believe it. It is the downfall of both of them.
    • Lead in, “quote” (Citation).
Desdemona swears that she is truthful and pleads with Othello, “have you mercy, too. I never did offend you in my life, never loved Cassio but with such general warranty of heaven as I might love. I never gave him token”(Shakespeare 5.2.73-76).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove claim: explain what the quote says, connect to the claim
Othello was very stressed, he felt inferior to Cassio, and he was not in the right state of mind. Othello was easy to tempt because he trusted Iago like Fortunato trusted Montresor in Cask of Amontillado. Othello was self-conscious and frightened of Cassio. Iago’s poisonous ideas were full of holes, or darkness. Humans are not afraid of the dark, but what we fear lies within it. Othello was very afraid of the darkness in Iago’s assumptions. While Othello was by nature good, he allowed himself to be corrupted by Iago. Have you ever held a newborn baby? How could anyone say that by nature, they are not good? A newborn baby is without sin, it retains complete innocence, and it has no knowledge of wrong. In the perfect environment it continues to remain good and innocent. For a person to be evil, something bad has to occur to make them evil. Iago is a terrible person and has done atrocious things that are shunned even by the scum of humanity.
  • Counterclaim
Humans are by nature, bad.
    • Set-up situation of quote: What is going on in the story?
Iago’s scheme has almost succeeded but is in shambles. Desdemona is dead, Emelia knows what he did, Roderigo is dead, Cassio is badly wounded, and Iago is under the eye of suspicion.
    • Lead in, “quote” (Citation).
In one of Iago’s soliloquies earlier in the book, he says, “... I hate the Moor; And it is thought abroad that 'twixt my sheets 'Has done my office. I know not if't be true; Yet I, for mere suspicion in that kind, Will do as if for surety” (Shakespeare 1.3.3.78-82). He even goes so far to use his wife like a pawn without any regard for her when he remarks, “Villainous whore!” (Shakespeare 5.2.273) and, “Filth, thou liest!” (Shakespeare 5.2.276).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove counterclaim: explain what the quote says, connect to the counterclaim
After Iago insults his wife, he stabs and kills her. Iago is incapable of seeing the good in anyone or anything. Iago has never been a good person and never will be one. Iago is not capable of love, being loved, and being around people that love him because he is evil at the roots. Iago is a materialistic, hedonistic, devil. If Iago can be this evil it is not possible for human nature to be good. Desdemona was also with sin because even when she was honest in the eyes of her father she was deceiving him by being with Othello. Even when someone is whole, like Othello, they can be easily tainted by sin. Iago shattered Othello’s innocence because he was evil.
Proposal Paper
Rebuttal progression:

1st step: Describe a "naive response" or an opposing interpretation of your position. A "naive view" is a view that you personally disagree with or a view that misses something important. But don't use the word "naive." Say something like…
I used to think that...
A common view is that...
At first glance...
Many think that....
X argues that...
Critics of ____ propose...

Many argue that human nature is good, whole, and innocent.

2nd step: Briefly explain the logic or reasoning of this "naive view." Answer the question, "Why would someone think this way? Why would they find their answer or solution logical or reasonable?" Why did I think this way? Say something like...
We cannot deny that...
This way of making sense of the position makes a degree of sense [why?]
This position seems reasonable [why?]
I can understand why someone might interpret X in this way [explain how so]
These conclusions seem compelling [why?]

This seems very plausible when you take an example like a baby. Babies are innocent, good, perfect, and loving. There is nothing evil about infants.

3rd step: Provide a transition that indicates that you are going to contrast this "naive view." Say something like...
However...
But it's more complicated than that...
This interpretation is helpful, but it misses an important point...
This interpretation raises a fundamental question...
While this view seems plausible/reasonable at first glance, we should look closer...

However, babies grow up. Evil enters their lives. When we are babies we do not sin, but we can not yet think for ourselves. Hitler was not evil when he was a child but he attempted to eradicate an entire race from Earth. As children we deceive our parents time after time until we learn our lesson. Young boys have carnal and violent desires. This is clearly demonstrated in The Lord of The Flies. In the Garden of Eden when the serpent tempted Adam and Eve, it was Adam and Eve’s choice, not the serpent’s.It is said that people aren’t afraid of the dark but what lies in it. What we see in the dark is not real, but what we imagine comes from our minds. Even our thoughts are evil. Sin is a part of human nature

  • Concluding sentence: restate title, author, position, main idea and because

In Othello, Shakespeare very accurately evaluates the good and evil in human nature with the most satanic character from all of his plays, Iago.


Sources

Carlton, Martha, Ph.D. "Motivating Learning in Young Children." Motivating Learning in Young Children. National Association of School Psychologists, 2003. Web. 04 Oct. 2015.

Thursday, September 24, 2015

Drake Hampton Othello Act 2 S/R Redo

Summary Response Outline

Summary:
  • Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb, main idea
By the second act of Othello, a five act tragedy written by Shakespeare, the four main characters are already deeply wound in a web of love, jealousy, revenge, and treachery inspired by pride and self conceit.
  • Supporting ideas and explanations to prove main ideas
In act two Iago is like a chameleon because he changes his persona depending on who he is with and what he thinks they want to hear. He does this to deceive and manipulate them hoping to achieve his desired result. Through Iago’s soliloquies, asides, and actions, the viewer gains insight into Iago’s manipulative nature. He reveals his scheme to set up an affair between Cassio and Desdemona. Iago intends to be a saint in Othello’s eyes for offering him information of the affair. Iago uses these deceptions to bring about the downfall of Othello and Cassio.
  • Concluding sentence: restate main idea
In Othello, Shakespeare accentuates how people wear masks to hide their pride and jealousy and achieve their goals.

Response:
  • Topic sentence: title, author, strong verb,correctly portrays/ incorrectly portrays___________ because ___________ .
The second act of the Othello, accurately depicts the power that pride and jealousy have over Iago’s actions because of his commitment to bring about the downfall of Cassio.

Claim 1:
Iago is motivated to defame Cassio by his jealousy of Cassio’s position as Lieutenant.
    • Set-up
Othello and Desdemona go to bed and Iago reveals in a soliloquy that he plans to get Cassio drunk. Iago hopes that when Cassio is intoxicated, he will make rash decisions that will force Othello to relieve Cassio of his position. Iago is jealous of Cassio’s position so once Cassio is drunk he orders Roderigo to fight Cassio.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (Shakespeare 1.2.13-17).
Iago attempts to persuade Cassio and says, “Come, lieutenant, I have a stoup of wine; and here without are a brace of Cyprus gallants that would fain have measure to the health of black Othello” (Shakespeare 2.3.30-33).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove claim: explain quote, connect to claim
Iago ruins Cassio’s reputation in order to remove Cassio from his position. If Cassio is relieved of his duty, Iago will fill the vacant position he deserves. Iago allows jealousy to rule his actions and will stop at nothing to remove Cassio from his post.
  • Counterclaim 1:
However, to defame Cassio, Iago tempts Cassio with wine out of revenge so that when he gets drunk, he is forced to exploit his relationship with Desdemona.

  • Set-up
Iago gets Cassio drunk and hopes that he will make rash decisions that will force Othello to relieve Cassio of his position. Iago hopes that after Cassio is relieved, he will take his advice and seek Desdemona’s assistance to regain his former stature. Cassio does all of this to hurt Othello.
    • Evidence: Lead-in  “ quotation” (       )
Iago thinks to himself, “If I can fasten but one cup upon him, With that which he had drunk tonight already, He’llo be as full of quarrel and and offense As my young mistress; dog. Now my sick fool Roderigo” (Shakespeare 2.3.49-53).
    • Explanation of quotation to prove counterclaim: explain quote, connect to claim
Iago is completely consumed with revenge like Montresor was in “Cask of Amontillado”. Iago wants revenge on Othello for awarding Cassio the title of Lieutenant. Iago lusts after revenge so much that he ruins Cassio’s reputation and sets the stage to hurt Othello. Like Montresor, Iago craves revenge because his pride was wounded by being looked down upon by someone.

  • What are the strengths/ flaws of this argument? (use rebuttal progression language)
Rebuttal Progression:
1st step: Describe a "naive response" or an opposing interpretation of your position. A "naive view" is a view that you personally disagree with or a view that misses something important. But don't use the word "naive." Say something like…
I used to think that...
A common view is that...
At first glance...
Many think that....
X argues that...
Critics of ____ propose...

Many think Iago is merely motivated by his jealousy of Cassio’s position as Lieutenant to defame Cassio.
2nd step: Briefly explain the logic or reasoning of this "naive view." Answer the question, "Why would someone think this way? Why would they find their answer or solution logical or reasonable?" Why did I think this way? Say something like...
We cannot deny that...
This way of making sense of the position makes a degree of sense [why?]
This position seems reasonable [why?]
I can understand why someone might interpret X in this way [explain how so]
These conclusions seem compelling [why?]

We cannot deny that Iago was jealous of Cassio because Cassio had what Iago wanted.
3rd step: Provide a transition that indicates that you are going to contrast this "naive view." Say something like...
However...
But it's more complicated than that...
This interpretation is helpful, but it misses an important point...
This interpretation raises a fundamental question...
While this view seems plausible/reasonable at first glance, we should look closer...

However, it’s more complicated than that because although Iago was jealous of Cassio, his real focus was revenge on Othello. When Othello made Cassio Lieutenant instead of Iago it wounded Iago’s pride because he thought he was better suited than Cassio. Iago’s actions indicate that Iago hates Othello because he wanted Othello to be punished. Another example of how wounded pride can be a motivator for revenge is the character Montresor in “Cask of Amontillado.” Montresor hated Fortunato because of how Fortunato insulted his pride. Montresor also wanted Fortunato to be punished. Like Montresor, Iago is pursuing revenge and is very determined to have his way.

  • Concluding sentence: restate main idea
In the second act of Othello, Iago’s behavior is a perfect example of how people allow jealousy and revenge to rule over their actions.